contents of this page

general introduction

the menu frame

the text frame

text display options
other text pages :
introductions synopses notes on the text bibliographies
author’s notebooks author’s letters

the note frame


the noframes version

citing the works on this site

general introduction

You can think of the editions on this site as online versions of the modern paperbacks of literary classics (not that any are copied from such editions, I hasten to add!). As well as the text, carefully edited from a single source, each contains :

Whereas in a printed edition these elements are presented sequentially – paperback publishers not usually wanting to run to the expense of typesetting footnotes on the text pages! – in the electronic environment all the elements are interrelated by hypertext links. Therefore the display of a text on the Ladder has three frames. Full descriptions are given below, but, to summarize, they are, from left to right :

The details on this ‘help’ page will not tell you how to make use of what I provide in my editions – they merely describe the contents and the mechanics of the pages. In particular, use of the ‘programmed’ features, which will not be familiar from other sites, is given in detail, as a supplement to the brief ‘helps’ which are linked from the menus.

This frame is used to display the menu for the edition. Its width varies with the width of your browser window, because the text frame in the centre of the display is initially set to a width which keeps the lines of text short enough for easy reading. Most items on the menu should be self-explanatory, but for reference they are listed below. Things you may not notice although they are quite useful are :

  1. the wordmark at the top of the menu (that is, the fancy ‘the Ladder’) is an active link back to the starting page (home page) for the whole site
  2. when you click a link to load a different page into the central, text, frame, some nifty JavaScript shifts the focus (the active frame of the window) to the newly loaded one, ready for you to start scrolling or paging down: this saves you moving the mouse and clicking on the new page to read all of it
  3. there is an option to hide the menu  (useful if you find that the options are distracting when you’re reading a text in the central frame)

For convenience, the menu is standardized across the site and has the following elements, from the top downwards :

hiding the menu

With the implementation of the advanced text and textlabel features, some operations involve a reload of the menu content (for example, to update the list of textlabels). This means that, where possible, you should use the menu for navigating to pages you have already viewed once, because the ‘back’ button of your browser can be upset by the multiple menu loads, meaning you might need multiple presses of the ‘back’ button to reach what you thought was just the previous page.

text frame   (centre)

This frame is used to display, first, my introduction to the edition, and, subsequently, most of the options listed on the menu for the edition which you select, chiefly of course the text itself. This is the reason it is referred to as the ‘text frame’. Its width is set to a suitable value (500 pixels) to keep the lines of text short enough for easy reading. However, you can change the width to suit yourself, because I haven’t fixed it with a ‘noresize’ in the code. Just left-click on the left or right frame border and drag it.

Generally, links to the other main pages within an edition open ‘on top’ of the current page whilst links to other editions and to external sites open in a new tab/window (depending on your browser and its settings). You can predict which will happen by looking at the status or title information that displays when you hover your mouse pointer over the link: if the link says it ‘takes you’ somewhere it will be in the same frame or tab/window but if it says it ‘open(s)’ something that will be in a new tab/window. Links to notes always open in the right-hand note frame and so don’t specify.

The next few sections of this document describe the features of my Henry James text pages. They concentrate on the browser-based user features. For details applicable to the content of the texts themselves see my general notes on the editorial method employed here, and the individual textual note page which is part of each edition. The latter is discussed, along with the other pages that can appear in the text frame, below.


One of the downsides of a frames-based display is that sometimes the active frame, that is the one where clicking the mouse or pressing say the ‘page down’ key, will attempt to make the action is not where you expect (hope) it will be. In browser-speak this is known as the frame that has ‘focus’ and it is normally the last frame in which the browser has done something. To help you overcome this disadvantage, my implementation tries to be clever and predict where you are likely next to be interested in manipulating the display. Thus, when you click an item on the menu which relates to something in the central ‘text’ frame, such as loading one of the support pages or changing the font size of the text, hidden JavaScript commands move the focus from the menu, where it was forced when you clicked there, to the activated (that is, text) frame. In practice you shouldn’t notice this happening because it is logical: if you clicked something related to the text it is probably because you want to read it and will be moving it next.

I you have a computer mouse with a scroll-wheel, this could well scroll the content of the frame over which the cursor is hovering, even before you click anything (I think this feature might be application dependent). Note therefore that it doesn’t follow the focus, which will affect mouse-clicks and the keyboard’s navigation keys.

text display options
text colour

Since I wanted to make reading a Henry James text on screen as comfortable as possible, the background colour of the pages appearing in the text frame is cream. To differentiate the bordering frames and make them less obtrusive they are in a dark brown with light coloured text. In case you prefer reading the text in the latter colour scheme, you have the option to swap the colours of the text by clicking on ‘reverse colours’ on the menu. Again, some canny JavaScript ensures that the state of the links in the text (see next paragraph) remains the same, relative to the new colours.

An additional text colour option is available for the playtexts only: to change the colour of the stage direction text. In order not to disrupt the standard order of the other text options on the menus across the site, this is placed last in the text options’ section and is therefore described below.

link colour

Because coloured links in narrative text draw unwarranted, and probably unwanted, attention to particular words or phrases – emphasis which James would anyway not have envisaged – I have deliberately made the links in the fictional texts the same colour as the surrounding text. These links are exclusively to notes, which open in the right-hand frame (and are described below), and will not replace the text.

You can see whether there is a link on a word or phrase which puzzles or interests you by putting the mouse pointer over it and looking for the immediate browser status line message (not in the Opera browser) or the floating text which appears a few moments later. However you can reveal the presence of these links by clicking on the ‘reveal/hide links’ option on the menu (when the text is loaded in the central frame). As the option name shows, this is a toggle and clicking it a second time will revert the link text to the surrounding colour. Revealed links will be the same style as links on the rest of the site, coloured orange (but the same shade for visited and unvisited links) and not underlined. The colour is the same on both backgrounds (see above).

There is nothing to stop you reading the whole text with links revealed, provided you are not distracted by the fact that I have ‘scribbled’ my notes on it! In fact, this toggle also works on the texts of James’s prefaces, although in these the links are initially revealed, because the content is not ‘narrative’.

In case you want to check the status of the links, but are not sure where there is a link for you examine, there is a status message at the top of the text page (after the title and date), which appears when the links are not in their normal state of: fictional text – hidden; preface – revealed.

Be aware that links on other ‘text frame’ pages, including the short extracts from James’s notebooks, are coloured normally all the time, and the menu option will be neutralized when they are loaded. This is because none of their content is designed for continuous reading.

text size

One of the faults of cascading style sheets (CSS), even in their second incarnation (CSS2), is that the font size has to be specified separately from the font-family (even when all are specified together with the comprehensive ‘font’ property. Thus it is impossible to give a list of font faces in order of preference, and covering the fonts likely to be available on various software platforms, and then make allowance for the differing x-height of the fonts, which would imply choosing a different font size for some of the font families. All of which is a long-winded way of apologizing that some of you might find the characters on the Ladder too small, or occasionally, too large. If this affects the whole site you should be able to change that using your browser’s ‘zoom’ facility (try the ‘View’ drop-down menu if you have one). However, in case most of the site seems ok but you are having difficulty reading chunks of text, I have given you the option of changing the point size of the Henry James fictional text.

There are three options on the menu, under the rubric ‘text font size’, and they are only active when a James text is loaded in the central frame. They should be self-explanatory: ‘smaller’ and ‘larger’ decrease and increase, respectively, the font size by one point, with a lower limit of 8pt and an upper limit of 24pt. The ‘default’ option returns the text to the initial size of 11pt. These font options are only active when the text is displayed in the central frame; in addition, when the upper or lower size limit is reached, the appropriate option will become inactive.

Please note that most browsers I have encountered are ‘stupid’: if you change the font size when not at the top of the text page, they don’t keep the display at the same relative place on the page, but at the same fixed distance from the top: thus, if you increase the font size you will be looking at an earlier part of the text. I haven’t found any way round this problem, but would like to point out that the same ‘shifting view’ applies to the built-in browser text-zoom option, except in Internet Explorer. (You didn’t just hear me say that a Micros**t product has a feature which is better implemented than the opposition’s version, did you?) Thus it’s not only a problem with JavaScript implementations, or my programming ability, it’s a failure by the browser designers to understand the user’s needs. On the plus side, the browser does know where the internal ‘id’ points are, so the chapter and textlabel links work properly again. This means that, if you have set a non-default text size (it gets ‘remembered’ by the browser), then load another page in the central frame and then go back to the text by using a chapter or textlabel link, the browser will load to the ‘normal sized’ place, then change the font, leaving you looking at the wrong paragraph: just click the link option again and the browser will know the correct position this time!

stage direction colour (playtexts)

An additional text colour option is available for the playtexts only: to change the colour of the stage directions in the text. To avoid confusing users with two different arrangements of the three universal options, this appears at the foot of the ‘text options’ subsection of the menu. Although implemented chiefly to help distinguish the stage direction text from the spoken words, the colour of the ‘standalone’ stage direction paragraphs is also changed to ensure a consistent display.

Four non-text colours are provided: red, green, blue and magenta (some of these have slightly different shades when on a dark background). In the only ‘jazzy’ feature on the site, the menu option text of each alternative colour on the menu is the colour it names when the option is active (that is, when the playtext is displayed in the text frame and the colour is not already selected). The option labelled ‘normal’ (which is the normal link colour when active!) will revert the stage directions to the same colour as the ‘speech’ parts of the text. Incidentally, my favourite colour for the stage directions is green, although you might think that that clashes with the prevailing orange links, in which case you may prefer blue (the complementary colour to orange).

settings’ memory

All three (or four in playtexts) of the above settings – foreground/background colour; links revealed or hidden; preferred font size; and stage direction colour (in playtexts) – are ‘remembered’ by the browser. The mechanism to do this is a ‘cookie’, which is set on the computer you are using – no ‘server-side’ cookies are set by the Ladder on its server. This means that if you move to another machine, or if you have disabled cookies on your machine, these settings won’t be remembered from session to session, or even from going away from the text and returning to it. Similarly the settings are applied to the page by JavaScript, so if you have this turned off in your browser, they won’t be applied, even if they’re stored in the cookie. Once upon a time, I would have had some qualms about using these technologies, but they’re so widespread on the web these days that I am confident that most people will allow them to operate. Be assured that no Java (distinct from JavaScript) is used on the Ladder.


These give the user the ability to label one or more (up to 10) paragraphs of a fictional text or, in editions with more than one ‘text’, such as The ivory tower or the prefaces to the New York edition, for the edition as a whole, for quick navigation. One obvious use of this feature is to ‘bookmark’ your place in the text if you are interrupted while reading it. However, there are more sophisticated uses, which is why you can have up to ten for each text. You might for example be interested in the Christian references in one or more of the tales: because many different words or phrases will be relevant, you might end up continually calling up the concordance, navigating to a relevant edition and control-F searching the page for the things you remember seeing. Now you can mark the paragraph with a label which jogs your memory about the reason. It will then appear under that name on the menu for that text, just like the links to individual chapters.

Because browser manufacturers have hijacked the name ‘bookmark’, I have called these ‘textlabels’ and they “do what it says on the tin”. I considered various other possible names but ruled them out, including ‘placemarks’ (already used by G**gle earth), ‘textmarks’ (used by a digital watermarking service), ‘studymarks’ and ‘signposts’ (both a bit schoolbookish), and ‘paramark/label’, but ruled them out for these and other reasons.

Once you have set one or more textlabels, the list of names you have chosen appears in alphabetical order on the text’s menu in a separate subsection underneath the standard text links (XHTML, chapters and download). Each name is an active link to the paragraph in the text which you marked. It is active even when another page is loaded in the text frame, just like the normal chapter links.

Textlabels for the multi-text editions also show a reminder about which text is involved (for example, the preface number) in the menu display. Unfortunately, at present, textlabels for plays and their related texts only appear in the respective menus for the single-text displays: they are not available in the parallel-text display. If anyone wants to sponsor the intricate task of my rewriting the software to implement this, they are welcome to contact me to open negotiations about the cost!

To create a textlabel: double click your normal mouse button when the pointer is on any text in the paragraph you want to label. If the text happens to have a note link, the note will open too, but you will still be able to place the bookmark – just close the note in the usual way. In many browsers, double-clicking will have the side effect of selecting a word or phrase with highlighting, but it is still the start of the paragraph which will be the linked position. Unfriendly browsers also open the ‘right-hand click’ menu box automatically, which you will have to remove! (Don’t you just hate software which tries to be helpful, but is designed by a team with strange habits?) Despite these drawbacks, I have persevered with double-clicking as the method of accessing the create textlabel feature because it is quite easy to single-click on text when just wishing to move the page up or down a bit.

On your double-click for the textlabel creation, a JavaScript dialogue box will pop up, asking you to enter the name for the label. Ideally your choice of name should start with a letter, to ensure a sensible filing order on the menu. You can include special characters such as colons, apostrophes and brackets if you wish, but you are advised not to make the names very long. If you choose a name that is already in use (for this particular text), the new place will overwrite the previous one. If you start the name with a capital (uppercase) letter, it will act as a default place for the browser to go to next time you open that text with the main number (prefaces) or name option. This is the best way to use a textlabel to act like a real bookmark for your continuous reading (particularly handy for the editions of novels on the site). Obviously there can be only one such textlabel for each file, so if you enter another name commencing with a capital letter for the same text, the previous one will be converted to start with a lowercase (you will be warned that this is happening). Duplicate textlabel names are not permitted within the edition, even for different pages.

If you want to get rid of one or more of your textlabels, either so they don’t appear on the menu, or to make room for new ones when you have reached the limit of ten, use the ‘delete textlabel(s)’ option, which appears on the menu when there are any textlabels displayed. A question about each textlabel will be displayed in turn: click ‘OK’ to confirm removal of the textlabel named, or ‘Cancel’ to cancel the delete operation and thus keep it. I’m sorry that you have to review all the textlabels during the operation, even if you only want to delete one. The list of textlabels remains intact on the menu until you have answered all the questions, enabling you to check the text to which any of the textlabels apply (since this information doesn’t appear in the dialogue – sorry).

This feature is implemented with the browser cookie mentioned above and using JavaScript (so if you have either of these turned off, the textlabels won’t work) and there will be one cookie for each text you have marked (up to a maximum of twenty texts, each with ten textlabels). Each cookie expires three months after you last use it (or you can delete them earlier with the ‘security’ features of your browser).

Remember that the browser zoom problem means that if you’ve changed the text size, clicking one of the textlabel links or loading the text with a default textlabel (initial capital letter) will land you in the ‘wrong’ part of the page. The solution is to click the link again when the page has finished loading (by which time the browser will know the new positions of the identity tags in the text).

other text-frame pages

As well as the actual Henry James text, the central frame also displays the related commentary pages of the edition (the ‘critical apparatus’), apart from the annotations of the text, which appear in the note frame. There are four pages which always accompany an edition :

If relevant material is available for the particular work, two other pages may appear in this frame (and are listed on the menu) :

Longstanding users of the Ladder might recall that the text of the appropriate author’s preface to the New York edition used to appear in the text frame also. With the implementation of text display options this is no longer easy to arrange technically, so, on the principle that one might well want to read the preface in conjunction with the text to which it refers, links to the prefaces now open in a new tab/window. The option is still listed in the ‘edition’ part of the menu, even though it links to ‘another’ edition.

In very rare cases I have provided an additional commentary page, dealing with a particular issue about the text or its meaning which is too complicated to deal with in one of the regular notes. An example of this is the discussion of the ‘Saturday or Sunday’ textual problem in The papers. At the moment such pages are only linked from the relevant note and do not appear on the edition’s menu. If/when there are more of these, I may feel it worth adding them to the individual menus, or creating a separate guide to my commentaries.

The next few sections of this document highlight some features of the individual types of page which appear in the text frame.

introduction page

My introductions to the editions on the Ladder are not intended to be comprehensive summaries or discussions of points of interest in the works. The length and nature of the content varies according to the thoughts that occurred to me while constructing the edition, but it always ends with a few reminders and links to features available, largely for the benefit of first-time visitors to the site. I hope ‘regulars’ won’t get too annoyed by these repeated passages!

Sometimes in these introductions I have felt moved to discuss a point about the ending of the work. Obviously some users would prefer not to have features of a denouement revealed so, to avoid this happening unwittingly, such spoilers are hidden by making the text appear initially in the same colour as the background. This leaves a gap on the page, because the browser doesn’t ‘know’ that the colours match, which at least makes it obvious that something is missing. An option is provided on the page (not on the menu) to make the spoiler text reveal itself by changing to the normal text colour. Please note that there is no option to revert the spoiler to the background colour: if you need to hide it again, for example to show the page to someone else, you will have to click the ‘introduction’ option on the menu to reload the introduction page.

story synopses

First I reiterate my warning (above) that the summary and chapter-by-chapter synopsis I provide are not a substitute for reading the text! A work of fiction by Henry James is vary rarely about ‘what happened’: in a modernist, or occasionally postmodernist way, it is much more about the presentation of ideas to the reader. My synopsis is a reminder of the sequence of events/scenes which can act as a finding aid for passages you remember.

On this page you can click the chapter, book, act or ‘diary’ date heading to replace the synopsis with that point in the text. The start of the relevant section is loaded and, as even the synopsis paragraphs are very short summaries, you may have to scan/read down the page some way for the particular section you seek. Don’t forget that once in the text you can use your browser ‘find’ function (usually ‘ctrl-F’) to find a particular significant word.

notes on the text

This is the page, above all others, that distinguishes the ‘editions’ here from all the other Henry James texts available on the world-wide web. Following a brief introduction describing what we know of James’s composition of the work, there is an explicit statement of the source edition used to create my text. Then there is a section detailing, in conjunction with the general notes on the editorial method, exactly what changes I have made to the source text and why. The major part of this section is a, usually small, table showing the changes made in the text (apart from the standard editing, that is). This covers what text editors call all ‘substantive’ changes.

For individual changes, the correct text in this table is linked to the appropriate place in the actual text, so that you can click on it to follow up the change ‘in context’. The link will either take you to the start of the paragraph containing the change or, for very long paragraphs, to a coded reference place designed to be roughly at the start of sentence containing the change. Please note that because loading the text now reloads the menu, you will probably have to use the ‘back’ button twice to get back to the textual notes, or click the ‘note on the text’ option on the menu again and scroll down to the table of changes.

At the end of the table of changes a paragraph shows the number of words in the text (as counted by the script which generates the downloadable text file from the full XHTML text page). Finally on this page there are details of the proof-reading history of the text, together with a link for reporting to the editor of any errors you spot.


The bibliography which accompanies each edition comprises two sections. The first of these lists original publications of the work, produced during James’s lifetime and overseen by him. For the novels, plays and prefaces this information merely complements the summary given in the notes on the text, but for the tales (short stories) presented here, the basic information on these sources now duplicates that which is available as part of the tales in collections index, also on the Ladder. It is retained as a feature of the editions to provide additional information about these source publications, such as the number printed, the date of issue and the retail price. This section concludes with a link to the relevant place in the summary of novels’ reprints or to the relevant page of the tales index, whichever lists subsequent reprints of the work in question.

The second section of the edition’s bibliography page lists selected critical works. These are drawn from references retrieved from the MLA international bibliography, excluding dissertations (which are usually difficult for a general user to get hold of), and from significant relevant passages which I happen to have come across in books on James. Tales which attract little critical attention have a full list of references, whilst other tales and the novels have selected items only, concentrating on the more significant and/or more recent work.

I have provided a comment on each item that I have been able to get hold of. These annotations are not precis of the whole article/passage: they merely aim to give the reader enough clues to determine whether it will be worth tracking down the reference for their own purposes.

As there are a number of different referencing systems out there, I have not attempted to follow one standard completely. At least this will stop you copy-and-pasting references without thinking. In particular, please note that I have a background in librarianship and its IT, so references to books are given in ISBD format (although I can’t guarantee that I’m following the very latest edition, as it was over twenty years ago that I learnt the skill!). The most obvious features of this, for humanities scholars, are that words within titles are not capitalized unless they are proper nouns, and that titles are cited before authors. I have carried this over into my references to journal articles, etc.

I give as much information as I have to hand, retaining both issue numbers and pages within periodical volumes and months or seasons within years, although neither addition is usually necessary to specify the item uniquely. Because some of the sections I reference in books don’t have individual titles and because the pages numbers of citations of journal articles appear at the end of the reference anyway, I have standardized the placing of page numbers at the end of the details, even though this ‘messes up’ the end of the ISBDs and is slightly illogical where page numbers would fit nicely between a chapter title and the ‘in’. For this reason the numbers are always labelled ‘pages’, even in journal citations.

Note that, throughout the rest of the Ladder titles of works are given XHTML <cite> tag and so will appear as the browser desires… usually in italic font. In particular there won’t usually be quotation marks around article titles as there are in the bibliographies.

notebook entries

Where they exist I have transcribed entries which James made in his notebooks which are relevant to the edition. Because James destroyed many of his papers in the years leading up to his death, we do not have a complete record of his private thoughts. I have used both published editions of the surviving notebooks in preparing these pages, conflating onto a single page any multiple, date-spaced notes.

Although I don’t have access to the original notebooks, except for the odd page reproduced in plates in the editions, I have attempted to make my ‘transcriptions’ look slightly more like the manuscripts than the printed editions do. In particular, I have used CSS2 features to make the emphasized words and phrases in the notebooks appear underlined instead of with the default browser emphasis. These are not broken links and clicking on the won’t do anything unless they are coloured orange!


I have only had very occasional opportunity to add a page containing the text of relevant texts of Henry James’s letters. Estimates vary widely, but he probably wrote between 15000 and 40000 during his 73 years, of which 10423 are known to survive (according to the first volume of the recently started The complete letters). Whilst I can’t claim to know more than a small fraction of even the published letters, James doesn’t seem often to have discussed the content or meaning of individual works of his in correspondence.

As with my extracts from the notebooks, I have attempted to imitate the manuscript rather than the book editions by making emphasis with underline rather than the browser default (italic?). Once again, these are not broken links!

note frame   (right)

This frame is used to display any notes whose links you click in the text frame. Its width varies with the width of your browser window, because the text frame is fixed to a width which keeps the lines of text short enough for easy reading. For symmetry, the width of the note frame matches that of the menu on the left hand side when first loaded.

I try to annotate all occurrences of the following references in the text :

Occasionally I also annotate the first occurrence of a character name, giving some observations on potential sources and ‘resonances’ of the word(s) and of the possible significance of James’s choice.

This frame is also used to display the text for the three ‘help’ options on an edition’s menu. These summarize the information from this page relating to the textlabels, the text options and the no-frames page.

When you’ve finished reading the note or help, you can just leave it displayed in this frame: it will be overwritten by the next note you open. If, however, you find its presence distracting when you return to reading the text, you can blank out the note by clicking the ‘close this note’ option at the foot of the note, which will reload the blank content. Any displayed note will be replaced if you open another note and automatically blanked out if you select another of the edition’s features, or, of course, if you go to one of the other services.

additional notes/links

Sometimes notes have links in them to further notes on the Ladder. These will appear in the same, right-hand, frame, in place of the first note. If two such notes are not cross-referenced, you can use your browser’s ‘back’ button. At the end of the sequence you can, of course, ‘close this note’ to reload the blank content.

Generally, links in the notes to the other main pages within an edition, for example the bibliography, open ‘on top’ of the current page in the central frame. Links to other editions and features of the site and to external sites open in a new tab/window (depending on your browser and its settings) so you won’t lose your position in the the Ladder. You can predict what will happen by looking at the status or title information that displays when you hover your mouse pointer over the link: if the message says that the link ‘takes you’ somewhere it will be in the same frame set or tab/window but if it says it ‘open(s)’ something that will be in a new tab/window. Links to further notes always open in the same right-hand note frame and so don’t specify either mode of action.

additional use of the right-hand frame

There is (currently) one exception to the initial blank content of the note frame: when you load the menu and introduction to the prefaces of the New York edition, the notes frame is used for a list of the titles of the James’s works which he discussed in the prefaces, each with a link to the appropriate place in the relevant text page. This supplementary ‘menu’ will of course be overwritten by any note whose link you click in the preface text, therefore there is an additional ‘work-title list’ option on the main menu to restore it.


As an adjunct to the editions on the Ladder, I have used the computer to generate a single-word concordance to the fiction texts here. For each word this shows the texts including it and the number of occurrences in each, when more than one. Each work, indicated by a two-letter code, has a link to take you to the text (in its standard frames), but currently this can’t link to the exact place of the first occurrence of the word, so, once the text has loaded, use your browser’s ‘find’ facility (usually invoked with control-F) to search for the word. Some browsers very annoyingly ignore the focussed frame, so if you search for a word which happens to be in the menu you may have to ‘find next’ past it, even though the text frame is the active one on loading.

In addition to the alphabetical list of words, divided by language, the concordance has a list of the most frequently occurring English words, shown in descending order. For convenience, the list of works included in the concordance also gathers together the individual word count for each title, which is reported separately on each textual notes page. In fact the figures in the concordance summary are generated by the concordance creation program, providing a cross-check with the ones in the individual editions, which are obtained when the downloadable text file is generated. I hope there aren’t too many discrepancies between the figures!

the noframes options

As explained in full detail on the site accessibility notes, it has not been possible for me to generate a parallel set of pages for the Ladder suitable for users for whom the arrangement of the material in two or three frames causes difficulty. From the start of the site (see the history), when first-generation browsers were still in daily use, there has been a no-frames introduction and menu page for each edition. This has been retained and somewhat revised in the conversion of the site to XHTML. It is now a option linked from the menu, as the popular modern browsers don’t seem to offer the option to suspend frames’ display. Note however that a few features of the Ladder cannot be used without frames, chiefly the parallel-texts editions of the plays with their associated prose counterparts.

In the absence of a fully-fledged version without frames, this is something of a stop-gap measure, particularly as, because of the frame-naming behaviour of some browsers, if you use the ‘noframe’ option and then go to any conventional frames version in the same window/tab, you may experience some difficulty with the main pages opening in the whole window instead of in the correct frame. I know that this problem occurs in both IE7 and Firefox 2. It doesn’t affect my Linux installation of Opera version 9.63 and I am not clear whether that is because W3C standards specify what the behaviour should be and Opera is the only browser which follows the rules, or whether the need to reset a window name when a new frameset is loaded has been overlooked generally and Opera just happen to have coded something which does this anyway! So far I have been unable to find a JavaScript fix for this, although there ought to be some way to sort it out, and to fix the problem, if you are so foolish as to go to the no-frames version and then want to continue back in frames, you’ll have to close the window or tab which is remembering the whole display as the ‘text’ frame, and start again.

The noframes introduction and menu for each edition has been rewritten without the layout table, so sequential access is easier, for example for page-speaking software. As my introductions are mostly quite short, I have left the menu as the first content of the revised page. Subsequent pages which would normally appear in the central panel of the frames version then open in the same window or tab (which JavaScript on the noframes introduction and menu has named ‘text’. Linked notes open in a new window or tab because of the frames’ ‘note’ target in the coding: if I ever get time I might try to write some JavaScript to change all these targets when the note frame doesn’t exist! Such code might also change the footer links which currently take users to frames versions of the edition and site home pages, but for the time being, non-frames users should navigate ‘back’ or use their history, if they find it too troublesome to link out of the main frame set every time they get back there.

citing this site

As a guide here are some recommendations on how to cite this Henry James website in your own work. Of course, you should follow any standards or house rules in force in the medium and forum in which you are publishing, but in the comments below you will find the information you need to produce clear references to this site, or a part of it, whatever format you have to use.

In the examples, material which is optional appears between asterisks (**) and material which must be replaced by the appropriate text appears between curly brackets ({}).

in a web document

If your are referring to this site in a web document, use the appropriate title with <cite> and </cite> tags round it and put the URL in the value of the anchor tag’s ‘href’ attribute. Be sure to nest the opening and closing <a> and <cite> tags correctly. For guidance on the URL to use, see the next section, but an example of the code you might end up with is :

<a href="" title="a link to 'the Ladder'">
<cite>the Ladder : a Henry James website</cite></a>,
written and edited by Adrian Dover, accessed {date}
in a printed document

Again, a reminder that you should follow any standards or house rules in force in the forum in which you are publishing. The following examples and notes are based on the librarian’s rule of ‘title first’, which suits modern notions of textual autonomy, although I give a couple of alternative examples where The Oxford guide to style is adhered to and the author is cited first.

the site as a whole

the Ladder : a Henry James website, *written and edited* by Adrian Dover,
or (Oxford) Adrian Dover* (ed.)*, the Ladder : a Henry James website,
followed by
<>, accessed {date}

an individual edition of a James work, on the site

{title} by Henry James [online text], edited by Adrian Dover,
or (Oxford) Henry James, {title} [online text], edited by Adrian Dover,
followed by
the Ladder <{subdir}/home.htm>, accessed {date}

Actually ‘home.htm’ in the URL is optional, as the server will add it automatically to ‘subdir/’ (as long as it is with the trailing slash). The ‘subdir’ name you require appears in the browser’s location box if you navigate from the Ladder’s home/introduction page, via the menu of editions. Basically it abbreviates the title of the work: tales as word-initial and novels as initial-word (except for single-word titles!).

an individual critical page within an edition

'{title}' by Henry James : {subtitle}, by Adrian Dover, the Ladder <{subdir}/page_inframe.htm?page={pagename}>, accessed {date}

The full URL does not appear in the browser’s location box when you navigate from the edition home/intro page. To find the URL of your particular page you need to look in the ‘meta data’: with the page displayed but no area ‘selected’, right-click on the page and then choose ‘frame’-‘view frame info’, and look for ‘address’ in the pop-up panel. Please use the URL in the form shown above: it will make the page open in the correct frameset for onward navigation. The ‘pagename’ at the end is the file name part of the URL after the last ‘/’ and it can be given without the ‘.htm’ suffix if you wish. If you have followed a link to a specific part of the page, the URL will also end with an identifier string after a ‘#’ – you can either ignore this, or, if relevant to your citation, you can include it separately at the end of the URL as follows:

the novels’ index

Reprints of Henry James novels : a checklist, by Adrian Dover,
the Ladder <>, accessed {date}

This full URL does not appear in the browser’s location box when you navigate from the Ladder’s home/intro page.

the tales’ index

The Henry James tales in collections index, compiled by Adrian Dover,
the Ladder <>, accessed {date}

This full URL does not appear in the browser’s location box when you navigate from the Ladder’s home/intro page.